ḤOLON (Heb. חוֹלוֹן, name derived from ḥol, "sand," indicating the sand dunes upon which the town stands), city in Israel's Coastal Plain, 2.5 mi. (4 km.) S.E. of Tel Aviv. The area of Ḥolon was first settled in 1925, when groups of Ẓe'irei Mizrachi and Ohel Sadeh acquired land there. To guard their property, they set up modest huts on the spot, calling their suburb "Shekhunat Green," which then constituted part of the Jaffa municipality. A second stage was reached in the years 1934–36, when further, but still isolated, quarters were built by the public firms Agrobank and Shikkun, which had acquired large holdings on the vast sand-dune area. These suburbs attracted mainly working-class families that could not afford housing in Tel Aviv proper. The quarters continued to expand, in spite of the 1936–39 Arab riots. In 1940 there were five quarters (Agrobank, Kiryat Avodah, Shekhunat Am, Shekhunat Green, Moledet) with a combined population of 1,800, most of them workers. In the same year, Ḥolon received local council status. Until 1948 the population grew to 7,000 with the absorption of new immigrants and first industrial enterprises. In the War of Independence (1948), Ḥolon was at first completely isolated, but the fall of Arab Jaffa provided the much-needed link with Tel Aviv. Further land was added to Ḥolon's municipal area, bringing its total to 19,500 dunams, and it received municipal council status in 1950. Many new suburbs were built from 1949, and Ḥolon became a major industrial center. Its geographical advantages were the proximity of Tel Aviv, the railway line, major highways, the Tel Aviv harbor and later the Ashdod port, as well as the large dune areas that were easily adapted for industrial and residential construction. Ḥolon's share in the absorption of the mass immigration is indicated by its population increase from 15,000 in 1950 to 84,700 at the end of 1969. In 2002 the population was 165,800, making it the eighth largest city in Israel. It occupies a municipal area of 7.4 sq. mi. (19.2 sq. km.). Ḥolon's position within the Tel Aviv conurbation deeply influenced this city's development. In matters of financial, commercial, and many other services, including some aspects of education, recreation, and health, Ḥolon depends on Tel Aviv. Also, Tel Aviv provides employment to many of Ḥolon's inhabitants. Ḥolon's own economy has been principally based on its industry, concentrated mainly in a special area where large, medium, and small enterprises are located. The city has large public parks and irrigated lawns covering an area of over 100 acres. Among cultural institutions are Yad la-Banim, a cultural center in memory of local youth who fell in the country's defense, as well as a number of ulpanim. Ḥolon has a samaritan community. In 2003/4 the city opened a number of cultural institutions, such as the Ḥolon Theater, the Children's Museum, the Interdisciplinary Center for the Arts and Sciences, and the Center for Digital Art. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ḥolon 1959 (Heb., Eng., and Fr., 1959); I.M. Emanuel, Yadan Ḥolon (1961); Shesh Shenot Ma'aseh (photographs, 1965). WEBSITE: www.holon.muni.il . (Shlomo Hasson / Shaked Gilboa (2nd ed.) HOLTZMAN, ELIZABETH J. HOLTZMAN, ELIZABETH J. (1941– ), U.S. politician; at age 32 the youngest woman ever elected to the House of Representatives. Holtzman was one of twin children born in Brooklyn, NY, to Sidney and Filia (Ravitz) Holtzman. A graduate of Radcliffe College (B.A., 1962. and Harvard University Law School (J.D., 1965), "Liz" began her political activism in her student years as a participant in the Civil Rights movement. Between periods of private law practice, she briefly served as Mayor John V. Lindsay's liaison to the New York Department of Parks, Recreation, and Cultural Affairs (1969–70). Holtzman became increasingly active in New York Democratic politics and she defeated 50-year incumbent emanuel celler in the 1972 U.S. Congressional race to represent Brooklyn's 16th Congressional District. She was re-elected to the succeeding three Congresses (1973–80). She made history as a key player on the House Judiciary Committee during the 1974 Watergate hearings and she later voted to impeach President Richard Nixon. Holtzman was committed to bringing former Nazi war criminals living in the United States to justice. As chair of the House Subcommittee on Immigration, Refugees and International Law she wrote and passed through Congress the Holtzman Amendment, authorizing the deportation of Nazi war criminals and the establishment of the special investigation unit at the Justice Department. She co-authored the first refugee law in the United States, which helped thousands of Jewish refugees from the former Soviet Union enter the U.S. in the late 1970s and 1980s. Holtzman lost in a three-way race in 1980 for a New York U.S. Senate seat and was later elected district attorney for Kings County (Brooklyn), becoming the first female district attorney in the City of New York (1982–1989.) Elected as New York City Comptroller (1990–1993) she maximized city pension funds enabling the expansion of employment opportunities and low-cost housing. After a second failed bid for the U.S. Senate (1992), and loss of the comptroller's seat (1993) Holtzman returned to private law practice. She was appointed in 1999 by President Clinton to the Nazi War Criminal Records Interagency Working Group (IWG). Honors for outstanding public service include awards from the National Council on Jewish Women, Warsaw   Ghetto Resistance Organization, Brooklyn Coalition for Soviet Jewry, Radcliffe College, Civil Liberties Unions of New York, New Jersey and Los Angeles and the Young Women's Christian Association. Her autobiography, Who Said It Would Be Easy? One Woman's Life in the Political Arena, written with Cynthia L. Cooper, appeared in 1996. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Lederhendler, "Holtzman, Elizabeth," in: Jewish Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia (P.E. Hyman and D.D. Moore, eds.), Vol. 1 (1997), 657–59. (Judith Friedman Rosen (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Holon — (he) חולון (ar) نتانيا …   Wikipédia en Français

  • HOLON — quae de tribu Iudae, vel Simeonis data fuit Levitis. Ios. c. 15. v. 51. c. 21. v. 15. quae et Helon. dicitur …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • hōlōn — *hōlōn germ.?, schwach. Verb: nhd. verleumden; ne. calumniate; Rekontruktionsbasis: got.; Etymologie: s. ing. *kēl , *kōl , *kəl , Verb, betören, vorspiegeln, schmeicheln, betrügen …   Germanisches Wörterbuch

  • HOLON — (Heb. 1) (חֹלוֹן ,חֹלֹן) A priestly town in the Judean mountains (Josh. 15:51; 21:15; I Chron. 6:43 Hilen). Although some scholars identify it with Khirbat ʿAlīn, west of the Arab village of Beit Ummar (S.W. of Kefar Eẓyon), in Joshua 15:51 it is …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Holon — Infobox Israel municipality name=Holon imgsize= hebname=Hebrew|חוֹלוֹן arname=حولون meaning=(Little) sand founded=1936 type=city typefrom=1950 stdHeb= altOffSp= altUnoSp= district=ta population=180,000 popyear=2005 area dunam=19200mayor=Moti… …   Wikipedia

  • Holón — Un fractal se acerca a la idea de holón por ser una parte del mismo una representación del total. Un holón es algo que es a la vez un todo y una parte. La palabra fue acuñada por Arthur Koestler en su libro El espíritu de la bóveda. Contenido …   Wikipedia Español

  • Holon — Der Begriff Holon (von griech. ὅλος, hólos und ὀν, on „ganzes Seiendes“) wurde von Arthur Koestler geprägt und bedeutet ein Ganzes, das Teil eines anderen Ganzen ist. Es wird auch als Ganzes/Teil umschrieben. So ist zum Beispiel eine Zelle für… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Holon — Original name in latin Holon Name in other language Cholon, Holon, Holon, Jolon, Joln, Kholon, hwlwn, Холон State code IL Continent/City Asia/Jerusalem longitude 32.01034 latitude 34.77918 altitude 31 Population 165787 Date 2012 12 05 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • holon — noun a) One of two kinds of quasiparticle (the other being the spinon) that electrons in solids are able to split into during the process of spin–charge separation, when extremely tightly confined at temperatures close to absolute zero. b) From… …   Wiktionary

  • Holon — /khaw lawn /, n. a city in W central Israel: a suburb of Tel Aviv. 130,900. * * * ▪ Israel       city, west central Israel. It lies on the Plain of Sharon near the Mediterranean Sea, just south of Tel Aviv–Yafo. A part of the Tel Aviv–Yafo… …   Universalium

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